It is estimated that more than 25% of world wheat, barley, and corn production is contaminated with mycotoxins resulting from mold growth. In warm and humid regions, and under difficult conditions, this could be even higher.
Mold and yeast spoilage of feed, as well as mycotoxins, have a direct negative influence on the health and production performance of animals. As feed costs represent 50 to 70% of livestock production expenses, feed spoilage by mold and the resulting problems have a serious detrimental impact on livestock profitability.
Mycotoxins cause decreases in feed intake, reproduction rate, growth efficiency and immunological defense. They also lead to damage of the liver, kidneys, central nervous system and blood clotting functions.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds that can have a detrimental effect on animal and human health. The most common mycotoxins are aflatoxin, orchatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zeralenone (ZEA), T-2 and Fumonisin B1. Different livestock species react differently to mycotoxins. Piglets are very sensitive to ingestion of DON, and dietary concentrations of 1 ppm can result in a 10-20% reduction of feed consumption and feed conversion, while DON does not have major consequence in poultry. However, when layers are exposed to aflatoxin they show the same negative effects on animal physiology and performance. Aflatoxins are extremely toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Aflatoxin B1 is excreted in milk in the form of aflatoxin M1. The FDA limits aflatoxin to no more than 20 parts per billion (ppb) in lactating dairy feeds and 0.5 ppb in milk. Aflatoxin is more often found in corn, peanuts, and cottonseed grown in warm and humid climates. DON is a fusarium produced mycotoxin, also called vomitoxin because it was associated with vomiting in swine. Dairy cattle consuming diets contaminated primarily with DON (2.5 ppb) have responded favorably to the dietary inclusion of a mycotoxin binder, providing evidence that DON may reduce milk production. T-2 toxin is a very potent Fusarium-produced mycotoxin. T-2 has been associated with gastroenteritis, intestinal hemorrhages . T-2 has shown to reduce immunity through reduced protein synthesis. Zearalenone (ZEA) is a Fusarium-produced mycotoxin that has a chemical structure similar to estrogen and can produce an estrogenic response in animals. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is produced by species of Pencillium and Aspergillus and is a causative agent of kidney disease in pigs. The primary toxic effect is inhibition of protein synthesis. In cattle, OTA is rapidly degraded in the rumen.
Mycobond is formulated to have three key ingredients:
1. Extracts from yeast cell walls to attract non-polar toxins
2. Highly porous clays to attract polar toxins
3. Biotransformers in collaboration with Nebraska Cultures, Inc.