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Patent# 9,663,438

Chromium 0.4% & 0.04%

A chromium supplement for all classes of swine and cattle.
Guaranteed Analysis:
Chromium (Cr) – min 0.4% (elemental)
4,000 ppm from chromium propionate
Chromium (Cr) – min 0.04% (elemental)
400 ppm from chromium propionate
Directions for use:
Mineralate Cr™ Chromium 0.4% is not to be added directly to complete swine feed or complete cattle diets. This product is designed to be premixed prior to it’s inclusion into complete swine feed or complete cattle diets. This premix formulation should be followed: The resulting premix will contain 0.04% chromium.
SWINE: Will deliver 200 ppb (parts per billion) chromium (from chromium propionate) when added and thoroughly mixed at the rate of one (1) pound per ton of complete swine feed.
CATTLE: Will deliver 500 ppb chromium (from chromium propionate) when added and thoroughly mixed at the rate of 2.5 pounds per ton of complete cattle diets. The 0.04% premix should be added to dry ingredients prior to adding to high moisture ingredients or forages. Chromium propionate must not be added to free choice supplements.

Chromium was identified 40 years ago to be an essential mineral for laboratory animals. Chromium has been deemed an essential nutrient based on experimentally induced deficiencies in laboratory animals and clinically observed changes in the health of humans. The most commonly observed symptoms of chromium deficiency in humans include impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and elevations in serum insulin.
Chromium (Cr) is a trace element that is most commonly encountered in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Hexavalent Cr is a strong oxidizing agent and is used in numerous industrial processes, most notably in the manufacture of stainless steels. Trivalent Cr is the most stable oxidation state and is the form most likely to persist and have metabolic activity in the biological systems. It is speculated that inorganic forms of Cr are poorly absorbed and only organic trivalent forms of Cr seem to have repeatable biological effects.

Chromium Propionate Effect on Swine Performance:

  1. Chromium Propionate supplementation resulted in better growth
    performance in weaned pigs.
  2. Supplementation of chromium to pig diets has improved carcass quality in reducing backfat
    and increased percentage of muscle in growing and finishing pigs.
  3. Addition of chromium to sow diets has improved reproductive performance.

Besong (1996) supplemented multiparous and primiparous cows with 0 or 0.8 mg Cr/kg diet, as CrPic, from 30 days prepartum to 8 weeks postpartum. Performance results were not presented by parity in this study but parity was included in the statistical model. Chromium supplementation increased average milk yield from 31.1 to 33.4 kg/day. Feed intake was higher in Cr-supplemented cows during weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of lactation.

Supplementing with Cr during the transition period may increase feed intake and milk production later in lactation even if Cr supplementation is discontinued. McNamara and Valdez (2005) supplemented dairy cows with CrProp from 21 days prepartum until 35 days postpartum.